section provides information on three invasive insects potential harmful
to Adena Brook and residents. Generally, the most helpful action to take
in response to Ohio’s Emerald Ash Borer and Gypsy Moth problems
is to include a diverse selection of trees and shrubs native to Adena
Brook in your garden and take care of them. Here are some good choices:
Basswood, American Beech, Box Elder, Bladdernut, Buckeye, Dogwood, Cottonwood,
Hackberry, Honey Locust, Hornbeam, Ironwood, Paw-Paw, Spicebush, Sycamore,
Tulip-poplar, Red Elm, Serviceberry, Shagbark or Bitternut Hickory, Walnut
(Greg Schneider, Ohio Division of Natural Areas and Preserves).
Reduce the possibility
of mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus in the neighborhood by eliminating
standing water. Recycle unused tires, clean clogged roof gutters, aerate
ornamental pools, change bird bath water every two days, empty any potential
source for collecting and holding water such as flower pots.
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is an ash tree-killing insect from Asia. It was
identified in Ohio in 2003. The Ohio Department of Agriculture has developed
a response plan http://www.ohioagriculture.gov/plant/ppc/eab/plnt-eab-response.stm
to protect the state’s more than 3.8 billion ash trees. EAB kills
ash trees within three to five years of infestation. Adults are dark metallic
green, 1/2 inch in length and 1/8 inch wide, and fly only from mid-May
to September. Larvae spend the rest of the year developing beneath the
What are the symptoms of EAB?
This link takes you through a series of steps to help you learn to identify
How can I help slow the spread of EAB?
Do not move firewood. It is illegal to move firewood and ash tree materials
out of Ohio’s quarantined areas and out of the state of Ohio. Violators
face fines up to $4,000. Buy local firewood and help protect trees. (This
is the quarantined area)
Has EAB been found in the Adena Brook neighborhood?
the Department of Agriculture hung two EAB traps on Ash trees in Overbrook
Ravine Park. No EAB have been detected.
The gypsy moth was imported into the United States in 1869 in an experiment
to produce an improved silk producer. Once it escaped, it established
in the New England states and has since defoliated forests, killed trees,
and created great nuisances in urban areas.
Gypsy moth is the most important insect pest of forest and shade trees
in the eastern United States. The larval or caterpillar stage frequently
strips entire trees and even forests of their leaves over wide areas.
Severe defoliation can weaken trees, leaving them more susceptible to
other stresses, such as drought, disease, and other lethal-insect pests
such as borers. Trees that are already weakened may be killed.
Gypsy moth can feed on leaves of more than 300 species of trees and shrubs.
Favorites include oaks, aspens, birches, lindens, sweetgum, crabapples,
hawthorns, mountain ash, and willows.
A few trees are resistant, including honey locust, red maple, silver maple,
green ash, white ash, dogwood, and tulip tree. Evergreen trees are generally
resistant, but blue spruce and white pine are susceptible to defoliation,
especially by larger gypsy moth caterpillars.
Gypsy moth caterpillars can also be a significant nuisance when populations
are high. They have a tendency to aggregate on the sides of homes and
other structures, as well as produce large quantities of frass (fecal
pellets), which fall from tree canopies onto yards and patios below. Some
people, especially children, experience an allergic reaction when they
contact the many hairs covering the body of caterpillars (OSU Extension
To learn more about gypsy moth, visit The OSU Extension website at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2173.html
The United States Forestry website at:
I heard that Gypsy Moths were found thriving in Adena Brook. Where are
Neighbors report heavy gypsy moth infestations on these streets: Glenmont
Avenue, especially on the south side of Glenmont Avenue near Glenmont
Elementary School, Blenheim, the west side of Wynding Drive, and Northridge.
Some neighbors have treated their trees with the pesticide called Bt.
Neighbors who live on these streets are encouraged to check for egg cases
in late summer to determine the level of infestation and to inject-fertilize
their trees in the fall for the optimum health of the trees. For the Adena
Brook neighborhood in Clintonville, call Davey Tree Company 614-471-4144
and ask for Don Wells.
Where might the Gypsy Moth egg cases be in my yard, what do they look
like, and if I find them what should I do?
The best way to combat gypsy moth is to keep watch for the egg masses.
Egg masses, which are covered with tan-colored hairs, appear in July and
August and over winter until late April to early May. These egg masses
can contain up to 1500 eggs. If caterpillars are present, a band of burlap
can be placed around the trunk of a tree. Many times the caterpillars
will hide under the burlap during the heat of the day and then they can
be gathered up and destroyed by putting them in soapy water. It is also
helpful to keep your trees healthy. Gypsy moths seem to be particularly
fond of stressed trees. Remember to water trees during dry periods. Apply
a 2-3 inch layer of organic mulch around the base of the tree since grass
will compete for moisture and nutrients. Avoid mower and string trimmer
damage. If populations are found in larger numbers, another alternative
is to obtain pheromone traps from the Ohio Department of Agriculture to
capture male adults during flight time (Lisa M Bowers, Regional Urban
Forester, ODNR, Ohio Division of Forestry). Photographs
of the egg case.
How do I know if I have gypsy moth caterpillars?
Look for holes in leaves and leaf pieces on the ground. One way to monitor
gypsy moth populations is to trap them in burlap, when they are looking
for someplace to hide from sunlight, daytime temperatures, and predators.
Towards evening, the caterpillars come out of hiding, and travel up to
the canopy of the tree to feed on the leaves. By trapping these caterpillars,
homeowners have an opportunity to compare current populations to those
in prior years, and to take appropriate action if they see large numbers
of caterpillars. Information on trapping them in burlap is located by
Is pesticide spraying recommended?
It is the goal of our group to provide information to neighbors for informed
decision-making. This is what our mentors say about spraying:
"It is unfortunate to hear about gypsy moths in our neighborhood.
It is inevitable they would get here someday. Unfortunately the treatment
of the problem has a side effect on the other butterfly and moth species
and other insects. There is a balancing act in urban areas between the
desire to protect trees and to protect the environment as a whole. It
is a difficult choice." (Greg Schneider, Ohio Division of Natural
Areas and Preserves and Adena Brook neighbor).
"Gypsy moths can do damage when they first come into an area. But
observers have found out that in the eastern USA, where the gypsy moths
have been around for a long time, that nature balances them out. There
is an increase in caterpillar predators, such as yellow-billed cuckoos,
that bring the gypsy moth numbers back in balance. This year, birders
have already documented a noticeable increase in yellow-billed cuckoos
in Central Ohio. Spraying for gypsy moths doesn't just affect the gypsy
moth caterpillar; it affects ALL caterpillars, which has an impact upon
all beneficial moths and butterflies. I believe this is a case where it
is better to let nature take care of itself." (Elayna Grody,
City of Columbus Recreation and Parks).
I have a heavy infestation of gypsy moths and need to spray to save
the infected trees. What pesticide do you recommend?
If you have a heavy infestation and choose to spray, request that your
contractor use pheromone flakes or Gypcheck, which is a virus specific
to gypsy moth. Gypcheck will only kill the gypsy moth caterpillar. Some
people choose Bacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki or Bt, which is a soil
bacteria. But Bt kills all caterpillars, not just gypsy moth caterpillars
(Elayna Grody). If you spray, it is usually done in May and then
again two weeks after the first spraying.
What is Gypcheck?
The gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) is naturally occurring and
is the most common cause of the decline of outbreak gypsy moth populations.
Since the late 1950s scientists have been developing the use of this virus
as a biological pesticide. In 1978, the US Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) registered the product “Gypchek”. A similar product,
"Disparvirus," was developed in Canada. Gypchek is produced
by growing caterpillars on artificial diets, infecting them, harvesting
cadavers, and purifying the product. This method, referred to as "in
vivo" production, is labor-intensive and this is why application
of Gypchek is relatively expensive. Research is currently underway which
may some day allow for "in-vitro" (cell culture) production.
This could result in substantially lower production costs. More
What is Bt?
information on Bt.
Are there any species that naturally control gypsy moth?
Yes. A braconid wasp attacks young gypsy moth caterpillars. Learn
What are property owners with infestations doing to slow the spread
of Gypsy Moths?
Neighbor Maya Schulze shares this information:
"We just had a consultation and estimates from a Davey Tree Company
arborist. He said that the most important thing one can do to help the
trees survive a gypsy moth infestation is to fertilize them, which can
be done any time in the fall when the ground is soft enough for the fertilizer
to be injected. The one Davey uses continues to feed the tree throughout
the year. Davey can also spray even the largest trees with a bacillus
specific to the moths called Bacillus Thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk)—a
bacterium found in soils across the world and in Ohio, which when formulated
as an insecticide acts as a stomach poison to caterpillars (Ohio Department
of Agriculture www.ohioagriculture.gov/gypsymoth). Spraying would be done
in mid-May when the caterpillars first emerge and should be followed by
a second spraying two weeks later to catch any missed or late-emerging
caterpillars. Davey has had good success with this and has treated several
local gypsy moth outbreaks in Franklin County during the last four years."
West Nile Virus
What is West Nile Virus (WNV)?
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause encephalitis
(inflammation of the human brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the lining
of the human brain and spinal cord). West Nile Virus was first found in
the United States in New York City in the fall of 1999. When a mosquito
bites a bird that carries the virus, the mosquito becomes infected. It
is believed that people cannot get West Nile Virus directly from another
person or animal that has the disease. It is believed that this disease
is only transmitted by mosquitoes. Being bitten by an infected mosquito
will not necessarily make you severely sick, since most people who are
infected with West Nile Virus either have no symptoms or experience mild
illness. If illness were to occur, it would occur within 5 to 15 days
of being bitten by an infected mosquito. (Ohio Department of Health 2005)
What are the symptoms
Infection with WNV can be asymptomatic (no symptoms), or can lead to West
Nile fever or severe West Nile disease. It is estimated that about 20%
of people who become infected with WNV will develop West Nile fever. Symptoms
include fever, headache, tiredness, and body aches, occasionally with
a skin rash (on the trunk of the body) and swollen lymph glands. While
the illness can be as short as a few days, even healthy people have reported
being sick for several weeks.
The symptoms of severe disease (also called neuro-invasive disease, such
as West Nile encephalitis or meningitis or West Nile poliomyelitis) include
headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors,
convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis. It is estimated that approximately
1 in 150 persons infected with the West Nile virus will develop a more
severe form of disease. Serious illness can occur in people of any age,
however people over age 50 and some immuno-compromised persons (for example,
transplant patients) are at the highest risk for getting severely ill
when infected with WNV.
Most people (about 4 out of 5) who are infected with West Nile virus will
not develop any type of illness (an asymptomatic infection), however you
cannot know ahead of time if you'll get sick or not when infected. Symptoms
can lasts 2 – 15 days (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
Has WNV been found
In 2001, Ohio had birds and mosquitoes that tested positive for West Nile
Virus. In 2002, Ohio had its first human case of West Nile Virus and eventually
had a total of 441 human cases of West Nile Virus. This dropped to just
12 human cases of West Nile Virus in Ohio in 2004.
In August 2002, a number of great horned owls and red-tailed hawks were
observed across Ohio on the ground, alive, but not responsive to danger.
West Nile Virus was presumed to be the cause of these birds’ illness,
and lead to the death of hundreds of owls and hawks throughout Ohio. Test
results issued by the National Wildlife Health Laboratory (NWHL) in Madison,
Wisconsin indicated that these birds likely were affected by WNV. There
is no vaccination or treatment for birds with WNV. Hundreds of birds were
cared for by licensed Wildlife Rehabilitators across the state. It is
not known if raptors in Ohio will experience a similar impact by WNV in
the following years.
USA map of WNV infestations in 2007.
What would I do if I see a sick bird?
Persons who see a bird that appears thin, weak, unable to fly or stand,
is easily approachable, and is not responsive to danger should contact
Barbara Lynne Ray at (614) 761-0134 for assistance. Ray is a licensed
Wildlife Rehabilitator specifically trained for WNV. More
information about West Nile Virus is available at the Ohio
Division of Wildlife website.
Are there any reported adverse effects of spraying?
Malathion kills more than Mosquitoes. It also affects Fireflies, Praying
Mantises, ladybugs, spiders and a host of other beneficial insects and
there is mounting evidence suggesting it may have adverse affects on humans,
pets and other wildlife even with limited exposure. A UCLA study 5 years
ago linked Malathion to epidemic levels of frog mutations in 43 states
in the U.S. and Canada.
stating that “there are no studies examining whether the use of
malathion to control mosquitoes has caused any long-term health effects
in humans” is at this website.
Opposition to Spraying
“No Spray” Sample Letter to Send Ohio Department of
Columbus Public Health Department
240 Parsons Avenue
Columbus, OH 43215
Dear Mr. Harrod,
I respectfully request that you NOT SPRAY our home and yard with pesticide
for mosquitoes at [insert your address]. I make this request because [state
your reason—I have an organic garden, I maintain a registered Wildlife
Habitat, or, I have allergies to pesticides and/or respiratory issues].
I understand that this letter assures you will avoid spraying my property
and other properties for a half-block in each direction of my property.
Please contact me at [insert your telephone number] or at [insert your
email address] with any questions. Thank you in advance for honoring my
Birds That Typically Host WNV.
Wildlife Center Frequently Asked Questions About WNV.
Mosquitoes Prefer Robins, National Geographic 2006 Study
(rain or precipitation) run off from impervious surfaces such as rooftops,
drives, or streets pollutes streams. A rain garden is a unique and beautiful
landscape that captures and infiltrates this polluted stormwater run off.
A model rain garden is located at the entrance to Overbrook Drive on High
Street. Vinnie Tremante, Maureen Lorenz (Columbus Recreation and Parks),
Tom Russell (Columbus Department of Sewerage and Drainage), and Terry
Dull (Columbus Department of Transportation) are the designers.
Rain Gardening for Ravines: Native Landscaping with Stormwater
Written by Vinnie Tremante, LEED AP
Williams Creek Consulting
247 East Livingston Avenue, Suite B
Columbus, OH 43215
Rain gardening is one of the hottest new concepts in landscaping today
that is steadily gaining national attention and is growing in popularity
with gardening enthusiasts. States, cities, local communities and municipal
stormwater departments around the country are promoting rain gardening
in part due to its ability to alleviate problems associated with stormwater
runoff but also because of its ability to bring people and communities
together for the purposes of gardening, while providing a mechanism to
educate and to discuss stormwater related issues.
Problems such as flooding, drainage, and even combined sewer overflows
are not typically subjects of general popular interest, particularly for
those not immediately impacted by those problems. By comparison though,
83 percent of all households in the United States in 2005 – an estimated
91 million households – participated in one or more type of do-it-yourself
gardening activity according to the National Gardening Association’s
2005 National Gardening Survey. Though increasing interest in rain gardening
is of course a result of this overwhelming appetite for gardening, its
promotion and popularity are more deeply rooted in environmental conscientiousness
and civic pride. People love gardening for sure, but a form of gardening
that looks great, brings people together, can help solve community level
stormwater problems, reduce environmental degradation, and creates habitat
for birds, butterflies and dragonflies is definitely something worth supporting
and getting excited about.
What is Rain Gardening?
Rain gardening is a distinct and creative method of landscaping that captures
and infiltrates stormwater (rain/precipitation) that runs off impervious
surfaces such as rooftops, drives and roadways to create beautiful and
unique landscape features. Rain gardens are residential scale, shallow
landscaped depressions into which stormwater runoff is directed. Rain
gardens are designed into an overall landscape and make use of plants
that are naturally adapted to and prefer periodic inundation and seasonal
wetness. For this reason, native plants are often better suited to tolerate
and take advantage of the fluctuating wet and dry cycles that a rain garden
will experience. Additionally, native plants very often have deep roots
that fracture soil and create channels that, over time, further improve
infiltration. And of course, by providing food and habitat, native plants
welcome their bird, butterfly, and other wildlife friends into your yard.
Rain gardens also offer additional benefits that can be accrued on a regional
or watershed scale. As land is converted from a natural cover to impervious
cover, the volume of runoff dramatically increases. The increase in the
amount of stormwater runoff generated can be on the order of 200%-300%
for residential developments and 500%-1000% for urban commercial developments.
Rain gardens can restore a more natural hydrology and diminish the effects
of impervious surfaces by providing temporary storage of low-intensity
high-frequency storms, soaking up and infiltrating the runoff and recharging
groundwater stores, and filtering pollutants associated with the urban
runoff from these storms. The philosophical difference is that rain gardening
considers stormwater a valuable resource and as such endeavors to keep
and use it on site.
"Water is the most critical resource issue of our lifetime and our
children's lifetime. The health of our waters is the principal measure
of how we live on the land" (--- Luna Leopold)
Rain gardens are not to be confused with vegetable gardens or other landscape
features that incorporate water as a major component such as water gardens
or wetlands. Rain gardens are not water gardens because they do not retain
a permanent pool of water. In fact, a properly designed raingarden should
drain down within 24 hours. Plants that would be happy in a water garden
would defiantly not survive in a rain garden during the dry summer months.
Rain gardens are also not wetlands. Though some wetland plants may function
quite well in a rain garden, the rapid draining of the raingarden does
not allow wetland conditions to develop. Rapid drainage in a rain garden
also provides several benefits. Standing water can become a source for
breeding mosquitoes. Rain gardens are believed to actually reduce mosquito
populations when they dry out by breaking the water dependent portion
of the mosquito life cycle. Also, by draining within 24 hours, rain gardens
can capture runoff from successive storms that may occur over several
Problems with Stormwater
The US Environmental Protection Agency has identified urban stormwater
runoff as a leading source of river and stream impairment. Though Ohio
has seen an improvement in overall water quality for the State, the major
causes of lower water quality in many of Ohio’s smaller streams
are still the smaller scale indirect impacts from urban and agricultural
sources. This is in part because traditional drainage practices try to
flush stormwater from a site as quickly as possible and many of these
drainage systems were in place before current regulations requiring water
quality treatment were enacted.
In addition, studies on Ohio streams have shown that stream biology begins
to show signs of significant decline when impervious surfaces in the watershed
exceed approximately 14%, and that stream biology does not meet expected
standards with over 27% imperviousness. By comparison, residential land
uses can range from 20-65% imperviousness depending on lot sizes and industrial/commercial
land uses range from 75-95% imperviousness. The greatest potential value
rain gardens may provide the environment is their ability to directly
reduce the stormwater effects in existing developments, particularly for
smaller storm events.
Most people are unaware of the problems caused by stormwater runoff and
are even less aware of how they passively contribute to those problems.
It is often difficult to understand if and how any one individual may
contribute to stormwater related problems. Though most only own one house,
that one house is one of hundreds in a neighborhood and one of thousands
in a watershed. The relatively small amount of stormwater contribution
from one rooftop and driveway, when considered in a watershed context
and multiplied by the number of other homes becomes a significant contribution.
When the runoff contribution from the public infrastructure such as sidewalks
and roadways as well as stores and malls required to serve all those individual
homes is included, it becomes clear why stormwater runoff is so problematic.
The rule of no realm is mine great or small. But all worthy things that
are in peril as the world now stands, those are my care. And for my part,
I shall not wholly fail of my task, if anything passes through this night
that can still grow fair or bear fruit and flower again in days to come.
For I also am a steward. Did you not know? (---JRR Tolkien)
A Rain Garden for Every Home…
In the same manner that one home does not contribute to 100% of the stormwater
related problems, so too one rain garden will not solve all of a watershed’s
stormwater ills. However, several raingardens working in tandem or many
raingardens on a regional scale may provide significant reductions in
stormwater flows and pollutant contributions. For that reason, a growing
number of state and local municipalities across the country such as Maplewood
MN, Rock Island IL, and the State governments of Illinois and Wisconsin
are taking a closer look at using rain gardens as a low cost method for
retrofitting communities that have stormwater related problems.
In 2002, Burnsville, MN conducted a comparative study on two similar neighborhood
watersheds in an effort to determine if the use of rain gardens could
significantly reduce flow volumes and associated nutrients loads from
entering Crystal Lake. One neighborhood was retrofitted with 17 raingardens
while the other was left un-managed as a control. Two seasons worth of
data were collected both before and after implementation. The neighborhood
retrofitted with the rain gardens showed an amazing 90% reduction in runoff
volume from a 1.4 inch storm event. The project was a great success and
the rain gardens considered a valuable property amenity based high level
of community participation.
Other communities such as Portland, OR have used a rain garden variation
in combination with traditional infrastructure upgrades to help reduce
critical flows associated with basement sewer back ups and Combined Sewer
Overflow (CSO) events. For this project, curbs were extended into existing
street parking lanes creating bump-outs along the street. These designed
and vegetated bump-out rain gardens collect and infiltrate stormwater
runoff from the streets. A flow test simulating a 25-year storm event
was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the street-level rain
gardens and provide data for future projects. The rain gardens resulted
in an 84% overall volume reduction and an 88% reduction in the peak flow.
Additionally, the peak flow from the rain garden area was delayed by 20
minutes. The critical peak flow for the drainage area was between 5 and
15 minutes. By delaying the peak to beyond the critical time frame local
basements would be protected from sewer back ups.
Likely the largest rain garden initiative to date has been the “10,000
Rain Gardens” initiative in the City of Kansas City, MO. The 10,000
Rain Gardens is not a government program. Started in 2005, it is a collaborative
effort among public, private, volunteer and community organizations to
address the issues of stormwater by encouraging citizens to minimize stormwater
runoff and improve water quality though the collective use of rain gardens
with the goal of 10,000 rain gardens in 5 years. Nearly 190 rain gardens
have been registered to date.
Creating Your Own Rain Garden
The beauty of rain gardening is that it is simple enough that anyone who
likes to garden can create their own rain garden. With the increasing
interest in rain gardening, information on-line is very easy to come by
and for this reason, only a general outline of what is required to plan
a rain garden will be covered. Several links are provided for those interested
in finding more information on rain gardens or who may require garden
Site selection: Sunny locations will generally allow a wider palate of
plant selection, though shady areas will work fine. Rain gardens should
be kept a minimum of 10 feet away from the foundation of any buildings;
avoid root zones of large trees and septic areas. Low areas in yards can
be planted to improve drainage but should not have additional water directed
Soil infiltration: Test the infiltration rate of your soil by digging
a hole the size of a coffee can. Fill it with water and measure the depth.
Come back in four hours and measure again. The difference in depth will
tell you how many inches per hour your soil will infiltrate. Approximately
one inch of infiltration in four hours will equal six inches of infiltration
in 24 hours which is sufficient for your rain garden. Alternatives for
poorer draining soils can be found in the referenced guide manuals.
Sizing: This requires a bit of math. Multiply the surface area draining
to the rain garden (roof), times one inch of rain (1/12 of a foot). This
will give you the volume of water from a one inch rain event in cubic
feet. Divide that number by 0.5 feet (depth of rain garden) and that will
give you the approximate area of your rain garden. You can increase or
decrease the size of your rain garden to accommodate better or worse drainage
rates. Consult the referenced guides for more detail on sizing. Typical
sizes range from 100 to 300 square feet.
Design: Select a shape and dimension that are appropriate for the area
you need. It is helpful to lay a garden hose out on the ground to visualize
the size and shape of the rain garden prior to digging. Select appropriate
quantities of native plants for the located site. Rain gardens can be
wild or formal in design to suit your tastes.
Excavation: Rain gardens are typically six inches deep and level across
the bottom. Slope the sizes gently toward the bottom. Any shape will work.
Be aware of where the rain garden will overflow if there is a large storm
and be sure it is directed away from any structures. Try not to walk or
put heavy equipment in areas that are excavated. Organic soil amendments
are appropriate for rain gardens and may be necessary depending on soil
types and drainage.
Planting: Install and care for plants as you would other new landscaping.
Plants may need watering until established. Rain gardens may require weeding
until plants are of sufficient size to out compete weeds. Organic mulches
Depending on your level of activity, you may want to construct the entire
garden by yourself or you may want to hire a landscape professional to
help you. Similarly, depending on your comfort with designing, you may
want to create the design yourself or may require the assistance of a
professional designer. Of course, there is one small catch. Though the
concept of rain gardens has been around since the early 1990’s it
is still a relatively new of idea in Ohio. There are few contractors or
designers who have heard of them and still fewer who have designed or
installed them. Not to fret though. Rain gardens are not rocket science
and any designer worth his or her salt should be able to review readily
available literature on rain gardening, and provide you with a reasonable
plan. However, whomever you choose to help you, they should be well versed
in the cultural needs of native Ohio flora. Plants make the rain garden
function and a rain garden poses unique cultural conditions due to the
frequent flooding and saturated conditions. It is therefore critical that
any designer know the plants they are specifying will thrive in those
conditions and are appropriate in size.
There is a space in everyone’s yard for a rain garden. No rain garden
is too small; even if you can not hold all the rain from your roof or
driveway, holding at least some of it will still provide benefits and
the rain garden will still work. And like any garden, as it matures you
can relocate plants and change the design to accommodate the changes in
the surrounding landscape.
Although my rain gardens have Bloodroot and Trilliums blooming in the
spring, and Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds that come to sip on the Jewel Weed
and Monarda in the summer, my favorite time to enjoy my gardens is when
it is raining. Nearly every time it rains, I go out to my gardens to see
how much water they are holding and am amazed at how well they function.
If you enjoy gardening, you will love having a rain garden because it
will be a unique feature to your landscape that brings life into your
yard. If you are concerned about the environment, you will love having
a rain garden because you are doing your part to minimize your contribution
of stormwater runoff and urban pollutants. If you take pleasure in wildlife,
you will love having a rain garden for all the birds, bees, and butterflies
that will make your yard their home. With the many reasons and benefits
for having a rain garden, it is no wonder they are becoming so popular.
So where will you be putting your rain garden?
Rain Garden Links:
of West Michigan
Department of Natural Resources
The Rain Garden
Garden Manual - Geauga County Soil and Water Conservation District
Barr Engineering. Burnsville Rainwater Gardens. http://www.barr.com/PDFs/Papers
EPA. Office of Water. 2000 National Water Quality Inventory. EPA-841-R-02-001.
Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG). Stream
Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Revised 2001
Miltner, Robert J., Dale White, and Chris Yoder. The Biotic Integrity
Of Streams In Urban And Suburbanizing Landscapes. Landscape and Urban
Planning 69: 87-100. 2004.
Ohio EPA. Div. of Surface Water. Ohio Integrated Water Quality Monitoring
and Assessment Report. 2006.
Portland, City of. Flow Test Report Siskiyou Curb Extension. 2004. http://www.portlandonline.com/shared